This plugin adds spreadsheet capabilities to TWiki topics. Functions such as `%CALC{\$INT(7/3)}%` are evaluated at page view time. They can be placed in table cells and outside of tables. In other words, this plugin provides general function evaluation capability, not just classic spreadsheet functions. The plugin currently has 126 functions.

Example:

Region: Sales:
Northeast 320
Northwest 580
South 240
Europe 610
Asia 220
Total: 1970

Interactive example:

 Formula: `%CALCULATE{` `}%` Result: TWiki Guest
The formula next to "Total" is `%CALC{\$SUM( \$ABOVE() )}%`.
(you see the formula instead of the sum in case the plugin is not installed or is not enabled.)

## Syntax Rules

This plugin handles the `%CALC{...}%` and `%CALCULATE{...}%` variables. Built-in functions found between the quotes are evaluated as follows:

• Built-in function are of format `\$FUNCNAME(parameter)`
• Functions may be nested, such as `%CALC{\$SUM( R2:C\$COLUMN(0)..R\$ROW(-1):C\$COLUMN(0) )}%`
• Functions are evaluated from left to right, and from inside to outside if nested
• The function parameter can be text; a mathematical formula; a cell address; or a range of cell addresses
• Multiple parameters form a list; they are separated by a comma, followed by optional space, such as `%CALC{\$SUM( 3, 5, 7 )}%`
• A table cell can be addressed as `R1:C1`. Table address matrix:  `R1:C1` `R1:C2` `R1:C3` `R1:C4` `R2:C1` `R2:C2` `R2:C3` `R2:C4`
• A table cell range is defined by two cell addresses separated by `".."`, e.g. "row 1 through 20, column 3" is: `R1:C3..R20:C3`
• Lists can refer to values and/or table cell ranges, such as `%CALC{\$SUM( 3, 5, \$T(R1:C7), R1:C11..R1:C15 )}%`
• Functions can only reference cells in the current or preceeding row of the current table; they may not reference cells below the current table row
• Functions can also be placed outside of tables; they can reference cells in the preceeding table
• Functions can be placed in a FormattedSearch, but the CALC needs to be escaped. Learn how to use a CALC in a formatted search
• Plain text can be added, such as `%CALC{Total: \$SUM(\$ABOVE()) kg}%`

## Use CALC or CALCULATE

Use `%CALC{...}%` in table cells:
The CALC variable handles all functions, but it gets handled with delay compared to other TWikiVariables: It gets executed after internal variables and plugin variables that use the register tag handler. You may get unexpected results if you nest CALC inside other variables (such as `%INCLUDE{%CALC{...}%}%`) because it does not get evaluated inside-out & left-to-right like ordinary TWiki variables.

Use `%CALCULATE{...}%` outside tables:
The CALCULATE variable is handled inside-out & left-to-right like ordinary TWiki variables, but it does not support functions that refer to table cells, such as `\$LEFT()` or `\$T()`.

The plugin currently has 126 functions. Convention for parameters:

• Required parameters are indicated in `( bold )`
• Optional parameters are indicated in `( bold italic )`

### ABOVE( ) -- address range of cells above the current cell

• Syntax: `\$ABOVE( )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$SUM(\$ABOVE())}%` returns the sum of cells above the current cell
• Related: `\$LEFT()`, `\$RIGHT()`

### ABS( num ) -- absolute value of a number

• Syntax: `\$ABS( num )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$ABS(-12.5)}%` returns `12.5`
• Related: `\$SIGN()`, `\$EVEN()`, `\$ISDIGIT()`, `\$ODD()`

### AND( list ) -- logical AND of a list

• Syntax: `\$AND( list )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$AND(1, 0, 1)}%` returns `0`
• Related: `\$NOT()`, `\$IF()`, `\$OR()`, `\$WHILE()`, `\$XOR()`

### AVERAGE( list ) -- average of a list or a range of cells

• Syntax: `\$AVERAGE( list )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$AVERAGE(R2:C5..R\$ROW(-1):C5)}%` returns the average of column 5, excluding the title row
• Related: `\$LIST()`, `\$MAX()`, `\$MEDIAN()`, `\$MIN()`, `\$STDEV()`, `\$STDEVP()`, `\$VAR()`, `\$VARP()`

### BITXOR( text ) -- bit-wise XOR of text

• Each bit of each character of `text` is flipped, useful to obfuscate text. Bit-XORing text twice will restore the original text.
• Syntax: `\$BITXOR( text )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$BITXOR(A123)}%` returns `¾ÎÍÌ`
• Example: `%CALC{\$BITXOR(\$BITXOR(anything))}%` returns `anything`
• Related: `\$HEXDECODE()`, `\$HEXENCODE()`, `\$LEFTSTRING()`, `\$REPLACE()`, `\$RIGHTSTRING()`, `\$SUBSTITUTE()`, `\$TRANSLATE()`, `\$XOR()`

### CEILING( num ) -- return the smallest integer following a number

• The ceiling(x) is the smallest integer not less than x
• Use `\$INT()` to truncate a number towards zero; use `\$FLOOR()` to get the largest previous integer
• Syntax: `\$CEILING( num )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$CEILING(5.4)}%` returns `6`
• Example: `%CALC{\$CEILING(-5.4)}%` returns `-5`
• Related: `\$EVAL()`, `\$FLOOR()`, `\$INT()`, `\$ROUND()`, `\$VALUE()`

### CHAR( number ) -- ASCII character represented by number

• Syntax: `\$CHAR( number )`
• Example: Example: `%CALC{\$CHAR(97)}%` returns `a`
• Related: `\$CODE()`

### CODE( text ) -- ASCII numeric value of character

• The ASCII numeric value of the first character in text
• Syntax: `\$CODE( text )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$CODE(abc)}%` returns `97`
• Related: `\$CHAR()`

### COLUMN( offset ) -- current column number

• The current table column number with an optional offset
• Syntax: `\$COLUMN( offset )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$COLUMN()}%` returns `2` for the second column
• Related: `\$ROW()`, `\$T()`

### COUNTITEMS( list ) -- count individual items in a list

• Syntax: `\$COUNTITEMS( list )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$COUNTITEMS(\$ABOVE())}%` returns `Closed: 1, Open: 2` assuming one cell above the current cell contains `Closed` and two cells contain `Open`
• Related: `\$COUNTSTR()`, `\$LIST()`, `\$WHILE()`

### COUNTSTR( list, str ) -- count the number of cells in a list equal to a given string

• Count the number of cells in a list equal to a given string (if str is specified), or counts the number of non empty cells in a list
• Syntax: `\$COUNTSTR( list, str )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$COUNTSTR(\$ABOVE())}%` counts the number of non empty cells above the current cell
• Example: `%CALC{\$COUNTSTR(\$ABOVE(), DONE)}%` counts the number of cells equal to `DONE`
• Related: `\$COUNTITEMS()`, `\$LIST()`, `\$WHILE()`

### DEF( list ) -- find first non-empty list item or cell

• Returns the first list item or cell reference that is not empty
• Syntax: `\$DEF( list )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$DEF(R1:C1..R1:C3)}%`
• Related: `\$COUNTSTR()`, `\$LISTIF()`, `\$LIST()`

### EMPTY( text ) -- test for empty text

• Returns `1` if `text` is empty, or `0` if not
• Syntax: `\$EMPTY( text )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$EMPTY(foo)}%` returns `0`
• Example: `%CALC{\$EMPTY()}%` returns `1`
• Example: `%CALC{\$EMPTY(\$TRIM( ))}%` returns `1`
• Related: `\$EXACT()`, `\$IF()`, `\$ISDIGIT()`, `\$ISLOWER()`, `\$ISUPPER()`, `\$ISWIKIWORD()`, `\$TRIM()`, `\$WHILE()`

### EVAL( formula ) -- evaluate a simple mathematical formula

• Addition, substraction, multiplication, division and modulus of numbers are supported. Any nesting is permitted
• Numbers may be decimal integers (`1234`), binary integers (`0b1110011`), octal integers (`01234`), hexadecimal integers (`0x1234`) or of exponential notation (`12.34e-56`)
• Syntax: `\$EVAL( formula )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$EVAL( (5 * 3) / 2 + 1.1 )}%` returns `8.6`
• Related: `\$CEILING()`, `\$EXEC()`, `\$FLOOR()`, `\$INT()`, `\$MOD()`, `\$ROUND()`, `\$VALUE()`

### EVEN( num ) -- test for even number

• Syntax: `\$EVEN( num )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$EVEN(2)}%` returns `1`
• Related: `\$ABS()`, `\$ISDIGIT()`, `\$MOD()`, `\$ODD()`, `\$SIGN()`

### EXACT( text1, text2 ) -- compare two text strings

• Compares two text strings and returns `1` if they are exactly the same, or `0` if not
• Syntax: `\$EXACT( text1, text2 )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$EXACT(foo, Foo)}%` returns `0`
• Example: `%CALC{\$EXACT(foo, \$LOWER(Foo))}%` returns `1`
• Related: `\$EMPTY()`, `\$IF()`, `\$ISDIGIT()`, `\$ISLOWER()`, `\$ISUPPER()`, `\$ISWIKIWORD()`, `\$TRIM()`

### EXEC( formula ) -- execute a spreadsheet formula

• Execute a spreadsheet formula, typically retrieved from a variable. This can be used to store a formula in a variable once and execute it many times using different parameters.
• Syntax: `\$EXEC( formula )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$SET(msg, \$NOEXEC(Hi \$GET(name)))}%` sets the `msg` variable with raw formula `Hi \$GET(name)`
• Example: `%CALC{\$SET(name, Tom) \$EXEC(\$GET(msg))}%` executes content of `msg` variable and returns `Hi Tom`
• Example: `%CALC{\$SET(name, Jerry) \$EXEC(\$GET(msg))}%` returns `Hi Jerry`
• Related: `\$EVAL()`, `\$GET()`, `\$NOEXEC()`, `\$SET()`

### EXISTS( topic ) -- check if topic exists

• Topic can be `TopicName` or a `Web.TopicName`. Current web is used if web is not specified.
• Syntax: `\$EXISTS( topic )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$EXISTS(WebHome)}%` returns `1`
• Example: `%CALC{\$EXISTS(ThisDoesNotExist)}%` returns `0`
• Related: `\$EXACT()`, `\$IF()`, `\$ISWIKIWORD()`, `\$TRIM()`

### EXP( num ) -- exponent (e) raised to the power of a number

• EXP is the inverse of the LN function
• Syntax: `\$EXP( num )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$EXP(1)}%` returns `2.71828182845905`
• Related: `\$LN()`, `\$LOG()`

### FILTER( expression, text ) -- filter out characters from text

• Remove characters from a `text` string. The filter is applied multiple times.
• The `expression` can be a sequence of characters or a RegularExpression. Use tokens in the `expression` if needed: `\$comma` for comma, `\$sp` for space. The `text` may contain commas.
• Syntax: `\$FILTER( chars, text )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$FILTER(f, fluffy)}%` returns `luy` - filter out a character multiple times
• Example: `%CALC{\$FILTER(an Franc, San Francisco)}%` returns `Sisco` - cut a string
• Example: `%CALC{\$FILTER(\$sp, Cat and Mouse)}%` returns `CatandMouse` - remove all spaces
• Example: `%CALC{\$FILTER([^0-9], Project-ID-1234)}%` returns `1234` - filter in digits, e.g. keep only digits
• Example: `%CALC{\$FILTER([^a-zA-Z0-9 ], Stupid mistake*%@^! Fixed)}%` returns `Stupid mistake Fixed` - keep only alphanumeric characters and spaces
• Example: `%CALC{\$FILTER([^a-zA-Z0-9], \$PROPER(an EXELLENT idea.))}%` returns `AnExcellentIdea` - turn a string into a WikiWord topic name
• Related: `\$FIND()`, `\$INSERTSTRING()`, `\$LEFTSTRING()`, `\$PROPER()`, `\$REPLACE()`, `\$RIGHTSTRING()`, `\$SEARCH()`, `\$SUBSTITUTE()`, `\$SUBSTRING()`, `\$TRANSLATE()`, `\$TRIM()`

### FIND( string, text, start ) -- find one string within another string

• Finds one text `string`, within another `text`, and returns the number of the starting position of `string`, from the first character of `text`. This search is case sensitive and is not a regular expression search; use `\$SEARCH()` for regular expression searching. Starting position is 1; a 0 is returned if nothing is matched.
• Syntax: `\$FIND( string, text, start )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$FIND(f, fluffy)}%` returns `1`
• Example: `%CALC{\$FIND(f, fluffy, 2)}%` returns `4`
• Example: `%CALC{\$FIND(@, fluffy, 1)}%` returns `0`
• Related: `\$FILTER()`, `\$INSERTSTRING()`, `\$LEFTSTRING()`, `\$REPLACE()`, `\$RIGHTSTRING()`, `\$SUBSTITUTE()`, `\$SUBSTRING()`, `\$SEARCH()`

### FLOOR( num ) -- return the largest integer preceding a number

• The floor(x) is the largest integer not greater than x
• Use `\$INT()` to truncate a number towards zero; use `\$CEILING()` to get the smallest following integer
• Syntax: `\$FLOOR( num )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$FLOOR(5.4)}%` returns `5`
• Example: `%CALC{\$FLOOR(-5.4)}%` returns `-6`
• Related: `\$CEILING()`, `\$EVAL()`, `\$INT()`, `\$ROUND()`, `\$VALUE()`

### FORMAT( type, precision, number ) -- format a number to a certain type and precision

• Supported `type`:
• `COMMA` for comma format, such as `12,345.68`
• `DOLLAR` for Dollar format, such as `\$12,345.68`
• `KB` for Kilo Byte format, such as `1205.63 KB`
• `MB` for Mega Byte format, such as `1.18 MB`
• `KBMB` for Kilo/Mega/Giga/Tera Byte auto-adjust format
• `NUMBER` for number, such as `12345.7`
• `PERCENT` for percent format, such as `12.3%`
• The `precision` indicates the the number of digits after the dot
• Syntax: `\$FORMAT( type, prec, number )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$FORMAT(COMMA, 2, 12345.6789)}%` returns `12,345.68`
• Example: `%CALC{\$FORMAT(DOLLAR, 2, 12345.6789)}%` returns `\$12,345.68`
• Example: `%CALC{\$FORMAT(KB, 2, 1234567)}%` returns `1205.63 KB`
• Example: `%CALC{\$FORMAT(MB, 2, 1234567)}%` returns `1.18 MB`
• Example: `%CALC{\$FORMAT(KBMB, 2, 1234567)}%` returns `1.18 MB`
• Example: `%CALC{\$FORMAT(KBMB, 2, 1234567890)}%` returns `1.15 GB`
• Example: `%CALC{\$FORMAT(NUMBER, 1, 12345.67)}%` returns `12345.7`
• Example: `%CALC{\$FORMAT(PERCENT, 1, 0.1234567)}%` returns `12.3%`
• Related: `\$FORMATTIME()`, `\$FORMATTIMEDIFF()`, `\$ROUND()`

### FORMATGMTIME( serial, text ) -- convert a serialized date into a GMT date string

• The date string represents the time in Greenwich time zone. Same variable expansion as in `\$FORMATTIME()`.
• Syntax: `\$FORMATGMTIME( serial, text )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$FORMATGMTIME(1041379200, \$day \$mon \$year)}%` returns `01 Jan 2003`
• Related: `\$FORMATTIME()`, `\$FORMATTIMEDIFF()`, `\$TIME()`, `\$TIMEADD()`, `\$TIMEDIFF()`, `\$TODAY()`

### FORMATTIME( serial, text ) -- convert a serialized date into a date string

• The following variables in `text` are expanded:
• `\$second` - seconds, 00..59
• `\$minute` - minutes, 00..59
• `\$hour` - hours, 00..23
• `\$day` - day of month, 01..31
• `\$month` - month, 01..12
• `\$mon` - month in text format, Jan..Dec
• `\$year` - 4 digit year, 1999
• `\$ye` - 2 digit year, 99
• `\$wd` - day number of the week, 1 for Sunday, 2 for Monday, etc
• `\$wday` - day of the week, Sun..Sat
• `\$weekday` - day of the week, Sunday..Saturday
• `\$yearday` - day of the year, 1..365, or 1..366 in leap years
• `\$isoweek` - ISO 8601 week number, one or two digits, 1..53
• `\$isoweek(format)` - formatted ISO 8601 week number. These variables are expanded in `format`:
• `\$isoweek(\$year)` - year of ISO 8601 week number, such as `2009` for 2010-01-03
• `\$isoweek(\$wk)` - 2 digit ISO 8601 week number, such as `53` for 2010-01-03
• `\$isoweek(\$day)` - day of ISO 8601 week number, starting with 1 for Monday, such as `7` for 2010-01-03
• `\$isoweek(\$iso)` - full year-week ISO week number, such as `2009-W53` for 2010-01-03
• `\$isoweek(\$yearW\$wk\$day)` - full year-week-day ISO week number, such as `2009W537` for 2010-01-03
• `\$isoweek(\$year-W\$wk-\$day)` - full year-week-day ISO week number, such as `2009-W53-7` for 2010-01-03
• `\$isoweek(\$year-W\$wk)` - year-week ISO 8601 week number, such as `2009-W53` for 2010-01-03
• Date is assumed to be server time; add `GMT` to `text` to indicate Greenwich time zone, or use `\$FORMATGMTIME()`.
• Syntax: `\$FORMATTIME( serial, text )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$FORMATTIME(0, \$year/\$month/\$day GMT)}%` returns `1970/01/01 GMT`
• Related: `\$FORMATGMTIME()`, `\$TIME()`, `\$FORMATTIMEDIFF()`, `\$TIMEADD()`, `\$TIMEDIFF()`, `\$TODAY()`

### FORMATTIMEDIFF( unit, precision, time ) -- convert elapsed time to a string

• Convert elapsed `time` to a human readable format, such as: `12 hours and 3 minutes`
• The input `unit` can be `second`, `minute`, `hour`, `day`, `month`, `year`. Note: An approximation is used for month and year calculations.
• The `precision` indicates the number of output units to use
• Syntax: `\$FORMATTIMEDIFF( unit, precision, time )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$FORMATTIMEDIFF(min, 1, 200)}%` returns `3 hours`
• Example: `%CALC{\$FORMATTIMEDIFF(min, 2, 200)}%` returns `3 hours and 20 minutes`
• Example: `%CALC{\$FORMATTIMEDIFF(min, 1, 1640)}%` returns `1 day`
• Example: `%CALC{\$FORMATTIMEDIFF(min, 2, 1640)}%` returns `1 day and 3 hours`
• Example: `%CALC{\$FORMATTIMEDIFF(min, 3, 1640)}%` returns `1 day, 3 hours and 20 minutes`
• Related: `\$FORMATTIME()`, `\$TIME()`, `\$TIMEADD()`, `\$TIMEDIFF()`

### GET( name ) -- get the value of a previously set variable

• Specify the variable name (alphanumeric characters and underscores). An empty string is returned if the variable does not exist. Use `\$SET()` to set a variable first. Unlike table ranges, variables live for the time of the page view and persist across tables, i.e. you can use it to summarize results across several tables.
• Syntax: `\$GET( name )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$GET(my_total)}%` returns the value of the `my_total` variable
• Related: `\$EXEC()`, `\$NOEXEC()`, `\$SET()`, `\$SETIFEMPTY()`, `\$SETM()`, `\$WHILE()`, TWiki:Plugins.SetGetPlugin

### HEXDECODE( hexcode ) -- convert hexadecimal code to string

• Decode a hexadecimal string, typically encoded with \$HEXENCODE().
• Syntax: `\$HEXDECODE( hexcode )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$HEXDECODE(687474703A2F2F7477696B692E6F72672F)}%` returns `http://twiki.org/`
• Related: `\$BITXOR()`, `\$HEXENCODE()`, `\$SUBSTITUTE()`, `\$TRANSLATE()`

### HEXENCODE( text ) -- encode text into hexadecimal code

• Each character of `text` is encoded into two hexadecimal numbers.
• Syntax: `\$HEXENCODE( text )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$HEXENCODE(http://twiki.org/)}%` returns `687474703A2F2F7477696B692E6F72672F`
• Related: `\$BITXOR()`, `\$HEXDECODE()`, `\$SUBSTITUTE()`, `\$TRANSLATE()`

### IF( condition, value if true, value if 0 ) -- return a value based on a condition

• The condition can be a number (where `0` means condition not met), or two numbers with a comparison operator `<` (less than), `<=` (less than or equal), `==` (equal), `!=` (not equal), `>=` (greater than or equal), `>` (greater than).
• Syntax: `\$IF( condition, value if true, value if 0 )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$IF(\$T(R1:C5) > 1000, Over Budget, OK)}%` returns `Over Budget` if value in R1:C5 is over 1000, `OK` if not
• Example: `%CALC{\$IF(\$EXACT(\$T(R1:C2),), empty, \$T(R1:C2))}%` returns the content of R1:C2 or `empty` if empty
• Example: `%CALC{\$SET(val, \$IF(\$T(R1:C2) == 0, zero, \$T(R1:C2)))}%` sets a variable conditionally
• Related: `\$AND()`, `\$EMPTY()`, `\$EXACT()`, `\$ISDIGIT()`, `\$ISLOWER()`, `\$ISUPPER()`, `\$ISWIKIWORD()`, `\$LISTIF()`, `\$NOT()`, `\$OR()`, `\$WHILE()`

### INSERTSTRING( text, start, new ) -- insert a string into a text string

• Insert `new` string into text string `text` to the right of `start` position. Position starts at 1; use a negative `start` to count from the end of the text
• Syntax: `\$INSERTSTRING( text, start, new )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$INSERTSTRING(abcdefg, 2, XYZ)}%` returns `abXYZcdefg`
• Example: `%CALC{\$INSERTSTRING(abcdefg, -2, XYZ)}%` returns `abcdeXYZfg`
• Related: `\$FILTER()`, `\$FIND()`, `\$LEFTSTRING()`, `\$REPLACE()`, `\$RIGHTSTRING()`, `\$SEARCH()`, `\$SUBSTITUTE()`, `\$SUBSTRING()`, `\$TRANSLATE()`

### INT( formula ) -- evaluate formula and return integer truncated towards 0

• Addition, substraction, multiplication, division and modulus of numbers are supported. Any nesting is permitted
• Numbers may be decimal integers (`1234`), binary integers (`0b1110011`), octal integers (`01234`), hexadecimal integers (`0x1234`) or of exponential notation (`12.34e-56`)
• If you expect a single decimal integer value with leading zeros, use `\$INT( \$VALUE( number ) )`
• Syntax: `\$INT( formula )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$INT(10 / 4)}%` returns `2`
• Example: `%CALC{\$INT(\$VALUE(09))}%` returns `9`
• Related: `\$CEILING()`, `\$EVAL()`, `\$FLOOR()`, `\$ROUND()`, `\$VALUE()`

### ISDIGIT( text ) -- test for digits

• Test for one or more digits (0...9)
• Syntax: `\$ISDIGIT( text )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$ISDIGIT(123)}%` returns `1`
• Example: `%CALC{\$ISDIGIT(-7)}%` returns `0`
• Related: `\$ABS()`, `\$EMPTY()`, `\$EVEN()`, `\$EXACT()`, `\$IF()`, `\$ISDIGIT()`, `\$MOD()`, `\$ODD()`, `\$SIGN()`, `\$VALUE()`

### ISLOWER( text ) -- test for lower case text

• Syntax: `\$ISLOWER( text )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$ISLOWER(apple)}%` returns `1`
• Example: `%CALC{\$ISLOWER(apple tree)}%` returns `0` (text contains a space character)
• Example: `%CALC{\$ISLOWER(ORANGE)}%` returns `0`
• Related: `\$EMPTY()`, `\$EXACT()`, `\$LOWER()`, `\$IF()`, `\$ISDIGIT()`, `\$ISUPPER()`, `\$ISWIKIWORD()`, `\$UPPER()`

### ISUPPER( text ) -- test for upper case text

• Can be used to test for ACRONYMS
• Syntax: `\$ISUPPER( text )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$ISUPPER(apple)}%` returns `0`
• Example: `%CALC{\$ISUPPER(ORANGE)}%` returns `1`
• Example: `%CALC{\$ISUPPER(ORANGE GARDEN)}%` returns `0` (text contains a space character)
• Related: `\$EMPTY()`, `\$EXACT()`, `\$LOWER()`, `\$IF()`, `\$ISDIGIT()`, `\$ISLOWER()`, `\$ISWIKIWORD()`, `\$UPPER()`

### ISWIKIWORD( text ) -- test for WikiWord

• A WikiWord has a sequence of UPPER, lower/digit, UPPER, optional mixed case alphanumeric characters
• Can be used together with `\$ISUPPER()` to test for valid topic names
• Syntax: `\$ISWIKIWORD( text )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$ISWIKIWORD(GoldenGate)}%` returns `1`
• Example: `%CALC{\$ISWIKIWORD(whiteRafting)}%` returns `0`
• Related: `\$EMPTY()`, `\$EXISTS()`, `\$EXACT()`, `\$IF()`, `\$ISDIGIT()`, `\$ISLOWER()`, `\$ISUPPER()`, `\$PROPER()`, `\$PROPERSPACE()`

### LEFT( ) -- address range of cells to the left of the current cell

• Syntax: `\$LEFT( )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$SUM(\$LEFT())}%` returns the sum of cells to the left of the current cell
• Related: `\$ABOVE()`, `\$RIGHT()`

### LEFTSTRING( text, num ) -- extract characters at the beginning of a text string

• Retrieve the `num` of characters from the left end of `text`; the leftmost character is returned if `num` is missing
• Syntax: `\$LEFTSTRING( text, num )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$LEFTSTRING(abcdefg)}%` returns `a`
• Example: `%CALC{\$LEFTSTRING(abcdefg, 5)}%` returns `abcde`
• Related: `\$BITXOR()`, `\$FILTER()`, `\$FIND()`, `\$INSERTSTRING()`, `\$REPLACE()`, `\$RIGHTSTRING()`, `\$SEARCH()`, `\$SUBSTITUTE()`, `\$SUBSTRING()`, `\$TRANSLATE()`

### LENGTH( text ) -- length of text in bytes

• Syntax: `\$LENGTH( text )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$LENGTH(abcd)}%` returns `4`
• Related: `\$LISTSIZE()`

### LIST( range ) -- convert content of a cell range into a list

• Convert the content of a range of cells into a flat list, delimited by comma. Cells containing commas are merged into the list
• Syntax: `\$LIST( range )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$LIST(\$LEFT())}%` returns `Apples, Lemons, Oranges, Kiwis` assuming the cells to the left contain `| Apples | Lemons, Oranges | Kiwis |`
• Related: `\$AVERAGE()`, `\$COUNTITEMS()`, `\$COUNTSTR()`, `\$DEF()`, `\$LISTIF()`, `\$LISTITEM()`, `\$LISTJOIN()`, `\$LISTMAP()`, `\$LISTNONEMPTY()`, `\$LISTRAND()`, `\$LISTREVERSE()`, `\$LISTSHUFFLE()`, `\$LISTSIZE()`, `\$LISTSORT()`, `\$LISTTRUNCATE()`, `\$LISTUNIQUE()`, `\$MAX()`, `\$MEDIAN()`, `\$MIN()`, `\$PRODUCT()`, `\$SPLIT()`, `\$SUM()`, `\$SUMDAYS()`, `\$SUMPRODUCT()`

### LISTIF( condition, list ) -- remove elements from a list that do not meet a condition

• In addition to the condition described in `\$IF()`, you can use `\$item` to indicate the current element, and `\$index` for the list index, starting at 1
• Syntax: `\$LISTIF( condition, list )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$LISTIF(\$item > 12, 14, 7, 25)}%` returns `14, 25`
• Example: `%CALC{\$LISTIF(\$NOT(\$EXACT(\$item,)), A, B, , E)}%` returns non-empty elements `A, B, E`
• Example: `%CALC{\$LISTIF(\$index > 2, A, B, C, D)}%` returns `C, D`
• Related: `\$EMPTY()`, `\$EXACT()`, `\$IF()`, `\$LIST()`, `\$LISTITEM()`, `\$LISTMAP()`, `\$LISTNONEMPTY()`, `\$LISTREVERSE()`, `\$LISTSIZE()`, `\$LISTSORT()`, `\$LISTUNIQUE()`, `\$SUM()`, `\$WHILE()`

### LISTITEM( index, list ) -- get one element of a list

• Index is 1 to size of list; use a negative number to count from the end of the list
• Syntax: `\$LISTITEM( index, list )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$LISTITEM(2, Apple, Orange, Apple, Kiwi)}%` returns `Orange`
• Example: `%CALC{\$LISTITEM(-1, Apple, Orange, Apple, Kiwi)}%` returns `Kiwi`
• Related: `\$COUNTITEMS()`, `\$COUNTSTR()`, `\$LIST()`, `\$LISTIF()`, `\$LISTMAP()`, `\$LISTNONEMPTY()`, `\$LISTRAND()`, `\$LISTREVERSE()`, `\$LISTSIZE()`, `\$LISTSORT()`, `\$LISTUNIQUE()`, `\$SPLIT()`, `\$SUM()`

### LISTJOIN( separator, list ) -- convert a list into a string

• By default, list items are separated by a comma and a space. Use this function to indicate a specific `separator` string, which may include `\$comma` for comma, `\$n` for newline, `\$sp` for space, and `\$empty` to join a list without a separator.
• Syntax: `\$LISTJOIN( separator, list )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$LISTJOIN(\$n, Apple, Orange, Apple, Kiwi)}%` returns the four items separated by new lines
• Example: `%CALC{\$LISTJOIN(\$empty, Apple, Orange, Apple, Kiwi)}%` returns `AppleOrangeAppleKiwi`
• Related: `\$LIST()`, `\$LISTNONEMPTY()`, `\$LISTSIZE()`, `\$SPLIT()`

### LISTMAP( formula, list ) -- evaluate and update each element of a list

• In the formula you can use `\$item` to indicate the element; `\$index` to show the index of the list, starting at 1. If `\$item` is omitted, the item is appended to the formula.
• Syntax: `\$LISTMAP( formula, list )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$LISTMAP(\$index: \$EVAL(2 * \$item), 3, 5, 7, 11)}%` returns `1: 6, 2: 10, 3: 14, 4: 22`
• Related: `\$COUNTITEMS()`, `\$COUNTSTR()`, `\$LIST()`, `\$LISTIF()`, `\$LISTITEM()`, `\$LISTNONEMPTY()`, `\$LISTREVERSE()`, `\$LISTSIZE()`, `\$LISTSORT()`, `\$LISTUNIQUE()`, `\$SPLIT()`, `\$SUM()`, `\$WHILE()`

### LISTNONEMPTY( list ) -- remove all empty elements from a list

• Syntax: `\$LISTNONEMPTY( list )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$LISTNONEMPTY(, Apple, Orange, , Kiwi)}%` returns `Apple, Orange, Kiwi`
• Related: `\$LISTIF()`, `\$LISTITEM()`, `\$LISTMAP()`, `\$LISTSIZE()`, `\$LISTUNIQUE()`

### LISTRAND( list ) -- get one random element of a list

• Syntax: `\$LISTRAND( list )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$LISTRAND(Apple, Orange, Apple, Kiwi)}%` returns one of the four elements
• Related: `\$COUNTITEMS()`, `\$COUNTSTR()`, `\$LIST()`, `\$LISTIF()`, `\$LISTITEM()`, `\$LISTMAP()`, `\$LISTSHUFFLE()`, `\$LISTSIZE()`, `\$LISTSORT()`, `\$LISTUNIQUE()`, `\$RAND()`, `\$SUM()`

### LISTREVERSE( list ) -- opposite order of a list

• Syntax: `\$LISTREVERSE( list )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$LISTREVERSE(Apple, Orange, Apple, Kiwi)}%` returns `Kiwi, Apple, Orange, Apple`
• Related: `\$COUNTITEMS()`, `\$COUNTSTR()`, `\$LIST()`, `\$LISTIF()`, `\$LISTITEM()`, `\$LISTMAP()`, `\$LISTSIZE()`, `\$LISTSORT()`, `\$LISTUNIQUE()`, `\$SUM()`

### LISTSHUFFLE( list ) -- shuffle element of a list in random order

• Syntax: `\$LISTSHUFFLE( list )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$LISTSHUFFLE(Apple, Orange, Apple, Kiwi)}%` returns the four elements in random order
• Related: `\$COUNTITEMS()`, `\$COUNTSTR()`, `\$LIST()`, `\$LISTIF()`, `\$LISTITEM()`, `\$LISTMAP()`, `\$LISTRAND()`, `\$LISTSIZE()`, `\$LISTSORT()`, `\$LISTUNIQUE()`, `\$RAND()`, `\$SUM()`

### LISTSIZE( list ) -- number of elements in a list

• Syntax: `\$LISTSIZE( list )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$LISTSIZE(Apple, Orange, Apple, Kiwi)}%` returns `4`
• Related: `\$COUNTITEMS()`, `\$COUNTSTR()`, `\$LIST()`, `\$LISTIF()`, `\$LISTITEM()`, `\$LISTJOIN()`, `\$LISTMAP()`, `\$LISTREVERSE()`, `\$LISTSORT()`, `\$LISTTRUNCATE()`, `\$LISTUNIQUE()`, `\$SPLIT()`, `\$SUM()`

### LISTSORT( list ) -- sort a list

• Sorts a list in ASCII order, or numerically if all elements are numeric
• Syntax: `\$LISTSORT( list )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$LISTSORT(Apple, Orange, Apple, Kiwi)}%` returns `Apple, Apple, Kiwi, Orange`
• Related: `\$COUNTITEMS()`, `\$COUNTSTR()`, `\$LIST()`, `\$LISTIF()`, `\$LISTITEM()`, `\$LISTMAP()`, `\$LISTREVERSE()`, `\$LISTSHUFFLE()`, `\$LISTSIZE()`, `\$LISTUNIQUE()`, `\$SUM()`

### LISTTRUNCATE( size, list ) -- truncate list to size

• Specify the desired size of the list; use a negative number to count from the end of the list
• Syntax: `\$LISTTRUNCATE( size, list )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$LISTTRUNCATE(2, Apple, Orange, Kiwi)}%` returns `Apple, Orange`
• Related: `\$COUNTITEMS()`, `\$COUNTSTR()`, `\$LIST()`, `\$LISTIF()`, `\$LISTITEM()`, `\$LISTMAP()`, `\$LISTSIZE()`, `\$LISTSORT()`, `\$LISTUNIQUE()`, `\$SUM()`

### LISTUNIQUE( list ) -- remove all duplicates from a list

• Syntax: `\$LISTUNIQUE( list )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$LISTUNIQUE(Apple, Orange, Apple, Kiwi)}%` returns `Apple, Orange, Kiwi`
• Related: `\$COUNTITEMS()`, `\$COUNTSTR()`, `\$LIST()`, `\$LISTIF()`, `\$LISTITEM()`, `\$LISTMAP()`, `\$LISTNONEMPTY()`, `\$LISTREVERSE()`, `\$LISTSIZE()`, `\$LISTSORT()`, `\$SUM()`

### LN( num ) -- natural logarithm of a number

• LN is the inverse of the EXP function
• Syntax: `\$LN( num )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$LN(10)}%` returns `2.30258509299405`
• Related: `\$EXP()`, `\$LOG()`

### LOG( num, base ) -- logarithm of a number to a given base

• base-10 logarithm of a number (if base is 0 or not specified), else logarithm of a number to the given base
• Syntax: `\$LOG( num, base )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$LOG(1000)}%` returns `3`
• Example: `%CALC{\$LOG(16, 2)}%` returns `4`
• Related: `\$EXP()`, `\$LN()`

### LOWER( text ) -- lower case string of a text

• Syntax: `\$LOWER(text)`
• Example: `%CALC{\$LOWER( \$T(R1:C5) )}%` returns the lower case string of the text in cell `R1:C5`
• Related: `\$ISLOWER()`, `\$PROPER()`, `\$PROPERSPACE()`, `\$TRIM()`, `\$UPPER()`

### MAX( list ) - biggest value of a list or range of cells

• Syntax: `\$MAX( list )`
• Example: To find the biggest number to the left of the current cell, write: `%CALC{\$MAX(\$LEFT())}%`
• Related: `\$LIST()`, `\$MEDIAN()`, `\$MIN()`, `\$PERCENTILE()`, `\$STDEV()`, `\$STDEVP()`, `\$VAR()`, `\$VARP()`

### MEDIAN( list ) -- median of a list or range of cells

• Syntax: `\$MEDIAN( list )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$MEDIAN(3, 9, 4, 5)}%` returns `4.5`
• Related: `\$LIST()`, `\$MAX()`, `\$MIN()`, `\$PERCENTILE()`, `\$STDEV()`, `\$STDEVP()`, `\$VAR()`, `\$VARP()`

### MIN( list ) -- smallest value of a list or range of cells

• Syntax: `\$MIN( list )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$MIN(15, 3, 28)}%` returns `3`
• Related: `\$LIST()`, `\$MAX()`, `\$MEDIAN()`, `\$PERCENTILE()`, `\$STDEV()`, `\$STDEVP()`, `\$VAR()`, `\$VARP()`

### MOD( num, divisor ) -- reminder after dividing `num` by `divisor`

• Syntax: `\$MOD( num, divisor )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$MOD(7, 3)}%` returns `1`
• Related: `\$EVAL()`, `\$EVEN()`, `\$ISDIGIT()`, `\$ODD()`, `\$SIGN()`

### NOEXEC( formula ) -- do not execute a spreadsheet formula

• Prevent a formula from getting executed. This is typically used to store a raw formula in a variable for later use as described in `\$EXEC()`.
• Syntax: `\$NOEXEC( formula )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$SET(msg, \$NOEXEC(Hi \$GET(name)))}%` sets the `msg` variable with the formula `Hi \$GET(name)` without executing it
• Related: `\$EVAL()`, `\$EXEC()`, `\$GET()`, `\$SET()`

### NOP( text ) -- no-operation

• Useful to change the order of plugin execution. For example, it allows preprocessing to be done before `%SEARCH{}%` is evaluated. The percent character '%' can be escaped with `\$percnt`. The quote character '"' can be escaped with `\$quot`.
• Syntax: `\$NOP( text )`

### NOT( num ) -- reverse logic of a number

• Returns 0 if `num` is not zero, 1 if zero
• Syntax: `\$NOT( num )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$NOT(0)}%` returns `1`
• Related: `\$AND()`, `\$EMPTY()`, `\$IF()`, `\$OR()`, `\$WHILE()`, `\$XOR()`

### ODD( num ) -- test for odd number

• Syntax: `\$ODD( num )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$ODD(2)}%` returns `0`
• Related: `\$ABS()`, `\$EVEN()`, `\$ISDIGIT()`, `\$MOD()`, `\$SIGN()`

### OR( list ) -- logical OR of a list

• Syntax: `\$OR( list )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$OR(1, 0, 1)}%` returns `1`
• Related: `\$AND()`, `\$IF()`, `\$NOT()`, `\$WHILE()`, `\$XOR()`

### PERCENTILE( num, list ) -- percentile of a list or range of cells

• Calculates the num-th percentile, useful to establish a threshold of acceptance. num is the percentile value, range 0..100
• Syntax: `\$PERCENTILE( num, list )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$PERCENTILE(75, 400, 200, 500, 100, 300)}%` returns `450`
• Related: `\$LIST()`, `\$MAX()`, `\$MEDIAN()`, `\$MIN()`, `\$STDEV()`, `\$STDEVP()`, `\$VAR()`, `\$VARP()`

### PI( ) -- mathematical constant Pi, 3.14159265358979

• Syntax: `\$PI( )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$PI()}%` returns `3.14159265358979`

### PRODUCT( list ) -- product of a list or range of cells

• Syntax: `\$PRODUCT( list )`
• Example: To calculate the product of the cells to the left of the current one use `%CALC{\$PRODUCT(\$LEFT())}%`
• Related: `\$LIST()`, `\$PRODUCT()`, `\$SUM()`, `\$SUMPRODUCT()`

### PROPER( text ) -- properly capitalize text

• Capitalize letters that follow any character other than a letter; convert all other letters to lowercase letters
• Syntax: `\$PROPER( text )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$PROPER(a small STEP)}%` returns `A Small Step`
• Example: `%CALC{\$PROPER(f1 (formula-1))}%` returns `F1 (Formula-1)`
• Related: `\$FILTER()`, `\$ISWIKIWORD()`, `\$LOWER()`, `\$PROPERSPACE()`, `\$TRIM()`, `\$UPPER()`

### PROPERSPACE( text ) -- properly space out WikiWords

• Properly spaces out WikiWords preceeded by white space, parenthesis, or `][`. Words listed in the DONTSPACE TWikiPreferences variable or DONTSPACE plugins setting are excluded
• Syntax: `\$PROPERSPACE( text )`
• Example: Assuming DONTSPACE contains MacDonald: `%CALC{\$PROPERSPACE(Old MacDonald had a ServerFarm, EeEyeEeEyeOh)}%` returns `Old MacDonald had a Server Farm, Ee Eye Ee Eye Oh`
• Related: `\$ISWIKIWORD()`, `\$LOWER()`, `\$PROPER()`, `\$TRIM()`, `\$UPPER()`

### RAND( max ) -- random number

• Random number, evenly distributed between 0 and `max`, or 0 and 1 if max is not specified
• Syntax: `\$RAND( max )`
• Related: `\$EVAL()`, `\$LISTRAND()`, `\$LISTSHUFFLE()`

### REPEAT( text, num ) -- repeat text a number of times

• Syntax: `\$REPEAT( text, num )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$REPEAT(/\, 5)}%` returns `/\/\/\/\/\`
• Related: `\$WHILE()`

### REPLACE( text, start, num, new ) -- replace part of a text string

• Replace `num` number of characters of text string `text`, starting at `start`, with new text `new`. Starting position is 1; use a negative `start` to count from the end of the text
• Syntax: `\$REPLACE( text, start, num, new )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$REPLACE(abcdefghijk, 6, 5, *)}%` returns `abcde*k`
• Related: `\$BITXOR()`, `\$FILTER()`, `\$FIND()`, `\$INSERTSTRING()`, `\$LEFTSTRING()`, `\$RIGHTSTRING()`, `\$SEARCH()`, `\$SUBSTITUTE()`, `\$SUBSTRING()`, `\$TRANSLATE()`

### RIGHT( ) -- address range of cells to the right of the current cell

• Syntax: `\$RIGHT( )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$SUM(\$RIGHT())}%` returns the sum of cells to the right of the current cell
• Related: `\$ABOVE()`, `\$LEFT()`

### RIGHTSTRING( text, num ) -- extract characters at the end of a text string

• Retrieve the `num` of characters from the right end of `text`; the rightmost character is returned if `num` is missing
• Syntax: `\$RIGHTSTRING( text, num )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$RIGHTSTRING(abcdefg)}%` returns `g`
• Example: `%CALC{\$RIGHTSTRING(abcdefg, 5)}%` returns `cdefg`
• Related: `\$BITXOR()`, `\$FILTER()`, `\$FIND()`, `\$INSERTSTRING()`, `\$LEFTSTRING()`, `\$REPLACE()`, `\$SEARCH()`, `\$SUBSTITUTE()`, `\$SUBSTRING()`, `\$TRANSLATE()`

### ROUND( formula, digits ) -- round a number

• Evaluates a simple `formula` and rounds the result up or down to the number of digits if `digits` is positive; to the nearest integer if digits is missing; or to the left of the decimal point if digits is negative
• Syntax: `\$ROUND( formula, digits )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$ROUND(3.15, 1)}%` returns `3.2`
• Example: `%CALC{\$ROUND(3.149, 1)}%` returns `3.1`
• Example: `%CALC{\$ROUND(-2.475, 2)}%` returns `-2.48`
• Example: `%CALC{\$ROUND(34.9, -1)}%` returns `30`
• Related: `\$CEILING()`, `\$EVAL()`, `\$FLOOR()`, `\$INT()`, `\$FORMAT()`

### ROW( offset ) -- current row number

• The current table row number with an optional offset
• Syntax: `\$ROW( offset )`
• Example: To get the number of rows excluding table heading (first row) and summary row (last row you are in), write: `%CALC{\$ROW(-2)}%`
• Related: `\$COLUMN()`, `\$T()`

### SEARCH( string, text, start ) -- search a string within a text

• Finds one text `string`, within another `text`, and returns the number of the starting position of `string`, from the first character of `text`. This search is a RegularExpression search; use `\$FIND()` for non-regular expression searching. Starting position is 1; a 0 is returned if nothing is matched
• Syntax: `\$SEARCH( string, text, start )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$SEARCH([uy], fluffy)}%` returns `3`
• Example: `%CALC{\$SEARCH([uy], fluffy, 4)}%` returns `6`
• Example: `%CALC{\$SEARCH([abc], fluffy,)}%` returns `0`
• Related: `\$FILTER()`, `\$FIND()`, `\$INSERTSTRING()`, `\$LEFTSTRING()`, `\$REPLACE()`, `\$RIGHTSTRING()`, `\$SUBSTRING()`

### SET( name, value ) -- set a variable for later use

• Specify the variable name (alphanumeric characters and underscores) and the value. The value may contain a formula; formulae are evaluated before the variable assignment; see `\$NOEXEC()` if you want to prevent that. This function returns no output. Use `\$GET()` to retrieve variables. Unlike table ranges, variables live for the time of the page view and persist across tables, i.e. you can use it to summarize results across several tables and also across included topics
• Syntax: `\$SET( name, value )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$SET(my_total, \$SUM(\$ABOVE()))}%` sets the `my_total` variable to the sum of all table cells located above the current cell and returns an empty string
• Related: `\$EXEC()`, `\$GET()`, `\$NOEXEC()`, `\$SETIFEMPTY()`, `SETM()`, `\$WHILE()`, TWiki:Plugins.SetGetPlugin

### SETIFEMPTY( name, value ) -- set a variable only if empty

• Specify the variable name (alphanumeric characters and underscores) and the value.
• Syntax: `\$SETIFEMPTY( name, value )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$SETIFEMPTY(result, default)}%` sets the `result` variable to `default` if the variable is empty or 0; in any case an empty string is returned
• Related: `\$GET()`, `\$SET()`

### SETM( name, formula ) -- update an existing variable based on a formula

• Specify the variable name (alphanumeric characters and underscores) and the formula. The formula must start with an operator to `+` (add), `-` (subtract), `*` (multiply), or `/` (divide) something to the variable. This function returns no output. Use `\$GET()` to retrieve variables
• Syntax: `\$SETM( name, formula )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$SETM(total, + \$SUM(\$LEFT()))}%` adds the sum of all table cells on the left to the `total` variable, and returns an empty string
• Related: `\$GET()`, `\$SET()`, `\$SETIFEMPTY()`, `\$WHILE()`

### SIGN( num ) -- sign of a number

• Returns -1 if `num` is negative, 0 if zero, or 1 if positive
• Syntax: `\$SIGN( num )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$SIGN(-12.5)}%` returns `-1`
• Related: `\$ABS()`, `\$EVAL()`, `\$EVEN()`, `\$INT()`, `\$ISDIGIT()`, `\$NOT()`, `\$ODD()`

### SPLIT( separator, text ) -- split a string into a list

• Split `text` into a list using `separator` as a delimiter. The `separator` may be a regular expression and may include `\$comma` for comma, `\$sp` for space and `\$empty` to split at each character. Default separator is one or more spaces (`\$sp\$sp*`).
• Syntax: `\$SPLIT( separator, text )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$SPLIT(, Apple Orange Kiwi)}%` returns `Apple, Orange, Kiwi`
• Example: `%CALC{\$SPLIT(-, Apple-Orange-Kiwi)}%` returns `Apple, Orange, Kiwi`
• Example: `%CALC{\$SPLIT([-:]\$sp*, Apple-Orange: Kiwi)}%` returns `Apple, Orange, Kiwi` (the separator means: Dash or colon, followed by optional spaces
• Example: `%CALC{\$SPLIT(\$empty, Apple)}%` returns `A, p, p, l, e`
• Related: `\$LIST()`, `\$LISTJOIN()`, `\$LISTSIZE()`

### SQRT( num ) -- square root of a number

• Syntax: `\$SQRT( num )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$SQRT(16)}%` returns `4`

### STDEV( list ) -- standard deviation based on a sample

• Calculates the standard deviation, assuming that the `list` is a sample of the population. Use `\$STDEVP()` if your data represents the entire population. The standard deviation is a measure of how widely values are dispersed from the average (mean) value.
• Syntax: `\$STDEV( list )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$STDEV(R2:C5..R\$ROW(-1):C5)}%` returns the standard deviation of column 5, excluding the title row
• Example: `%CALCULATE{\$STDEV(3.50, 5.00, 7.23, 2.99)}%` returns `1.90205152401295`
• Related: `\$AVERAGE()`, `\$LIST()`, `\$MAX()`, `\$MEDIAN()`, `\$MIN()`, `\$PERCENTILE()`, `\$STDEVP()`, `\$VAR()`, `\$VARP()`

### STDEVP( list ) -- standard deviation based on the entire population

• Calculates the standard deviation, assuming that the `list` is the entire population. Use `\$STDEV()` if your data represents a sample of the population. The standard deviation is a measure of how widely values are dispersed from the average (mean) value.
• Syntax: `\$STDEVP( list )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$STDEVP(R2:C5..R\$ROW(-1):C5)}%` returns the standard deviation of column 5, excluding the title row
• Example: `%CALCULATE{\$STDEVP(3.50, 5.00, 7.23, 2.99)}%` returns `1.64722493910213`
• Related: `\$AVERAGE()`, `\$LIST()`, `\$MAX()`, `\$MEDIAN()`, `\$MIN()`, `\$MAX()`, `\$MIN()`, `\$PERCENTILE()`, `\$STDEV()`, `\$VAR()`, `\$VARP()`

### SUBSTITUTE( text, old, new, instance, option ) -- substitute text

• Substitutes `new` text for `old` text in a `text` string. `instance` specifies which occurance of `old` you want to replace. If you specify `instance`, only that instance is replaced. Otherwise, every occurance is changed to the new text. A literal search is performed by default; a RegularExpression search if the `option` is set to `r`
• Syntax: `\$SUBSTITUTE( text, old, new, instance, option )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$SUBSTITUTE(Good morning, morning, day)}%` returns `Good day`
• Example: `%CALC{\$SUBSTITUTE(Q2-2012, 2, 3)}%` returns `Q3-3013`
• Example: `%CALC{\$SUBSTITUTE(Q2-2012,2, 3, 3)}%` returns `Q2-2013`
• Example: `%CALC{\$SUBSTITUTE(abc123def, [0-9], 9, , r)}%` returns `abc999def`
• Related: `\$BITXOR()`, `\$FILTER()`, `\$HEXDECODE()`, `\$HEXENCODE()`, `\$INSERTSTRING()`, `\$LEFTSTRING()`, `\$REPLACE()`, `\$RIGHTSTRING()`, `\$SUBSTRING()`, `\$TRANSLATE()`

### SUBSTRING( text, start, num ) -- extract a substring out of a text string

• Extract `num` number of characters of text string `text`, starting at `start`. Starting position is 1; use a negative `start` to count from the end of the text
• Syntax: `\$SUBSTRING( text, start, num )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$SUBSTRING(abcdefghijk, 3, 5)}%` returns `cdefg`
• Related: `\$FILTER()`, `\$FIND()`, `\$INSERTSTRING()`, `\$LEFTSTRING()`, `\$REPLACE()`, `\$RIGHTSTRING()`, `\$SEARCH()`, `\$SUBSTITUTE()`, `\$TRANSLATE()`

### SUM( list ) -- sum of a list or range of cells

• Syntax: `\$SUM( list )`
• Example: To sum up column 5 excluding the title row, write `%CALC{\$SUM(R2:C5..R\$ROW(-1):C5)}%` in the last row; or simply `%CALC{\$SUM(\$ABOVE())}%`
• Related: `\$LIST()`, `\$PRODUCT()`, `\$SUMPRODUCT()`, `\$WORKINGDAYS()`

### SUMDAYS( list ) -- sum the days in a list or range of cells

• The total number of days in a list or range of cells containing numbers of hours, days or weeks. The default unit is days; units are indicated by a `h`, `hours`, `d`, `days`, `w`, `weeks` suffix. One week is assumed to have 5 working days, one day 8 hours
• Syntax: `\$SUMDAYS( list )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$SUMDAYS(2w, 1, 2d, 4h)}%` returns `13.5`, the evaluation of `(2*5 + 1 + 2 + 4/8)`
• Related: `\$SUM()`, `\$TIME()`, `\$FORMATTIME()`

### SUMPRODUCT( list, list ) -- scalar product on ranges of cells

• Syntax: `\$SUMPRODUCT( list, list, list... )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$SUMPRODUCT(R2:C1..R4:C1, R2:C5..R4:C5)}%` evaluates and returns the result of `(\$T(R2:C1) * \$T(R2:C5) + \$T(R3:C1) * \$T(R3:C5) + \$T(R4:C1) * \$T(R4:C5))`
• Related: `\$LIST()`, `\$PRODUCT()`, `\$SUM()`

### T( address ) -- content of a cell

• Syntax: `\$T( address )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$T(R1:C5)}%` returns the text in cell `R1:C5`
• Related: `\$COLUMN()`, `\$ROW()`

### TIME( text ) -- convert a date string into a serialized date number

• Serialized date is seconds since the Epoch, e.g. midnight, 01 Jan 1970. Current time is taken if the date string is empty. Supported date formats: `31 Dec 2009`; `31 Dec 2009 GMT`; `31 Dec 09`; `31-Dec-2009`; `31/Dec/2009`; `31 Dec 2003 - 23:59`; `31 Dec 2003 - 23:59:59`; `2009/12/31`; `2009-12-31`; `2009/12/31`; `2009/12/31 23:59`; `2009/12/31 - 23:59`; `2009-12-31-23-59`; `2009/12/31 - 23:59:59`; `2009.12.31.23.59.59`. DOY (Day of Year) formats: `DOY2003.365`, `DOY2003.365.23.59`, `DOY2003.365.23.59.59`. Date is assumed to be server time; add `GMT` to indicate Greenwich time zone
• Syntax: `\$TIME( text )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$TIME(2003/10/14 GMT)}%` returns `1066089600`
• Related: `\$FORMATGMTIME()`, `\$FORMATTIME()`, `\$FORMATTIMEDIFF()`, `\$TIMEADD()`, `\$TIMEDIFF()`, `\$TODAY()`, `\$WORKINGDAYS()`

### TIMEADD( serial, value, unit ) -- add a value to a serialized date

• The `unit` is seconds if not specified; unit can be `second`, `minute`, `hour`, `day`, `week`, `month`, `year`. Note: An approximation is used for month and year calculations
• Syntax: `\$TIMEADD( serial, value, unit )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$TIMEADD(\$TIME(), 2, week)}%` returns the serialized date two weeks from now
• Related: `\$FORMATTIME()`, `\$FORMATGMTIME()`, `\$TIME()`, `\$TIMEDIFF()`, `\$TODAY()`

### TIMEDIFF( serial_1, serial_2, unit ) -- time difference between two serialized dates

• The `unit` is seconds if not specified; unit can be specified as in `\$TIMEADD()`.
• Notes: An approximation is used for month and year calculations. Use `\$ROUND()` to round `day` unit to account for daylight savings time change. Use `\$FORMAT()`, `\$FORMATTIMEDIFF()` or `\$INT()` to format real numbers
• Syntax: `\$TIMEDIFF( serial_1, serial_2, unit )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$TIMEDIFF(\$TIME(), \$EVAL(\$TIME()+90), minute)}%` returns `1.5`
• Example: `%CALC{\$ROUND(\$TIMEDIFF(\$TIME(2012-12-06),\$TIME(2012-12-13), day))}%` returns `7` (or `6.95833333333333` without the `\$ROUND()`)
• Related: `\$FORMAT()`, `\$FORMATGMTIME()`, `\$FORMATTIME()`, `\$FORMATTIMEDIFF()`, `\$INT()`, `\$TIME()`, `\$TIMEADD()`, `\$TODAY()`, `\$WORKINGDAYS()`

### TODAY( ) -- serialized date of today at midnight GMT

• In contrast, the related `\$TIME()` returns the serialized date of today at the current time, e.g. it includes the number of seconds since midnight GMT
• Syntax: `\$TODAY( )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$TODAY()}%` returns the number of seconds since Epoch
• Related: `\$FORMATTIME()`, `\$FORMATGMTIME()`, `\$TIME()`, `\$TIMEADD()`, `\$TIMEDIFF()`

### TRANSLATE( text, from, to ) -- translate text from one set of characters to another

• The translation is done `from` a set `to` a set, one character by one. The `text` may contain commas; all three parameters are required. In the `from` and `to` parameters you can add token `\$comma` for comma, `\$sp` for space, and `\$n` for newline
• Syntax: `\$TRANSLATE( text, from, to )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$TRANSLATE(boom,bm,cl)}%` returns `cool`
• Example: `%CALC{\$TRANSLATE(one, two,\$comma,;)}%` returns `one; two`
• Related: `\$BITXOR()`, `\$FILTER()`, `\$HEXDECODE()`, `\$HEXENCODE()`, `\$INSERTSTRING()`, `\$LEFTSTRING()`, `\$REPLACE()`, `\$RIGHTSTRING()`, `\$SUBSTRING()`, `\$SUBSTITUTE()`

### TRIM( text ) -- trim spaces from text

• Removes all spaces from text except for single spaces between words
• Syntax: `\$TRIM( text )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$TRIM( eat  spaces  )}%` returns `eat spaces`
• Related: `\$EMPTY()`, `\$EXACT()`, `\$FILTER()`, `\$ISWIKIWORD()`, `\$PROPER()`, `\$PROPERSPACE()`

### UPPER( text ) -- upper case string of a text

• Syntax: `\$UPPER( text )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$UPPER(\$T(R1:C5))}%` returns the upper case string of the text in cell `R1:C5`
• Related: `\$ISLOWER()`, `\$ISUPPER()`, `\$LOWER()`, `\$PROPER()`, `\$PROPERSPACE()`, `\$TRIM()`

### VALUE( text ) -- convert text to number

• Extracts a number from `text`. Returns `0` if not found
• Syntax: `\$VALUE( text )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$VALUE(US\$1,200)}%` returns `1200`
• Example: `%CALC{\$VALUE(PrjNotebook1234)}%` returns `1234`
• Example: `%CALC{\$VALUE(Total: -12.5)}%` returns `-12.5`
• Related: `\$CEILING()`, `\$EVAL()`, `\$FLOOR()`, `\$INT()`, `\$ISDIGIT()`, `\$ROUND()`

### VAR( list ) -- variance based on a sample

• This assumes that the `list` is a sample of the population. Use `\$VARP()` if your data represents the entire population.
• Syntax: `\$VARP( list )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$VAR(R2:C5..R\$ROW(-1):C5)}%` returns the variance of column 5, excluding the title row
• Example: `%CALCULATE{\$VAR(3.50, 5.00, 7.23, 2.99)}%` returns `3.6178`
• Related: `\$AVERAGE()`, `\$LIST()`, `\$MAX()`, `\$MEDIAN()`, `\$MIN()`, `\$MAX()`, `\$MIN()`, `\$PERCENTILE()`, `\$STDEV()`, `\$STDEVP()`, `\$VARP()`

### VARP( list ) -- variance based on the entire population

• This assumes that the `list` is the entire population. Use `\$VAR()` if your data represents a sample of the population.
• Syntax: `\$VARP( list )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$VARP(R2:C5..R\$ROW(-1):C5)}%` returns the variance of column 5, excluding the title row
• Example: `%CALCULATE{\$VARP(3.50, 5.00, 7.23, 2.99)}%` returns `2.71335`
• Related: `\$AVERAGE()`, `\$LIST()`, `\$MAX()`, `\$MEDIAN()`, `\$MIN()`, `\$MAX()`, `\$MIN()`, `\$PERCENTILE()`, `\$STDEV()`, `\$STDEVP()`, `\$VAR()`

### WHILE( condition, do ) -- do something while a condition is true

• The `condition` can be a number (where `0` means condition not met), or two numbers with a comparison operator `<` (less than), `<=` (less than or equal), `==` (equal), `!=` (not equal), `>=` (greater than or equal), `>` (greater than).
• The `condition` and `do` are evaluated in each cycle; a `\$counter` starting at 1 can be used in `condition` and `do`.
• Syntax: `\$WHILE( condition, do something )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$WHILE(\$counter<=10, \$counter )}%` returns `1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10`
• Example: `%CALC{\$SET(i, 0) \$WHILE(\$GET(i)<10, \$SETM(i, +1) \$EVAL(\$GET(i) * \$GET(i)), )}%` returns `1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81, 100,`
• Related: `\$AND()`, `\$EMPTY()`, `\$EXACT()`, `\$GET()`, `\$IF()`, `\$LISTIF()`, `\$NOT()`, `\$OR()`, `\$SET()`, `\$SETM()`, `\$REPEAT()`

### WORKINGDAYS( serial_1, serial_2 ) -- working days between two serialized dates

• Working days are Monday through Friday (sorry, Israel!)
• Syntax: `\$WORKINGDAYS( serial_1, serial_2 )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$WORKINGDAYS(\$TIME(2012-07-15 GMT), \$TIME(2012-08-03 GMT))}%` returns `14`
• Related: `\$SUMDAYS()`, `\$TIME()`, `\$TIMEDIFF()`

### XOR( list ) -- logical XOR of a list

• Syntax: `\$XOR( list )`
• Example: `%CALC{\$XOR(0, 0)}%` returns `0`
• Example: `%CALC{\$XOR(0, 1)}%` returns `1`
• Example: `%CALC{\$XOR(1, 0)}%` returns `1`
• Example: `%CALC{\$XOR(1, 1)}%` returns `0`
• Example: `%CALC{\$XOR(1, 0, 1)}%` returns `0`
• Related: `\$AND()`, `\$BITXOR()`, `\$IF()`, `\$NOT()`, `\$OR()`, `\$WHILE()`

## FAQ

### Can I use CALC in a formatted search?

Specifically, how can I output some conditional text in a FormattedSearch?

You need to escape the CALC so that it executes once per search hit. This can be done by escaping the `%` signs of `%CALC{...}%` with `\$percnt`. For example, to execute `\$IF(\$EXACT(\$formfield(Tested), Yes), %ICONURL{choice-yes}%, %ICONURL{choice-no}%)` in the `format=""` parameter, write this:

`%SEARCH{ .... format="| \$topic | \$percntCALC{\$IF(\$EXACT(\$formfield(Tested), Yes), %ICONURL{choice-yes}%, %ICONURL{choice-no}%)}\$percnt |" }%`

### How can I easily repeat a formula in a table?

To repeat the same formula in all cells of a table row define the formula once in a preferences setting and use that in the CALC. The preferences setting can be defined at the site level, web level or topic level, and may be hidden in HTML comments. Example:

```<!--
* Set MYFORMULA = \$EVAL(\$SUBSTITUTE(...etc...))
-->
| A | 1 | %CALC{%MYFORMULA%}% |
| B | 2 | %CALC{%MYFORMULA%}% |
| C | 3 | %CALC{%MYFORMULA%}% |
```

## CALC in Included Topics

By default, CALCs in an included topic are evaluated with delay. The SKIPINCLUDE setting tells the plugin to evaluate the CALCs once all INCLUDEs are processed. This default behavior is chosen so that it is possible to compose a bigger table from several includes and do some spreadsheet calculation over the whole table.

Attention: You can get unexpected results if you INCLUDE a topic that has other variables taking action on CALCs. For example, a CHART in an included topic sees unprocessed CALCs, which may result in a chart with incorrect values. To get he desired result you need to set the following preference setting in the topic that includes the topic containing the CHART:

This setting tells the SpreadSheetPlugin to process the CALCs in the included page, e.g. it will not delay the evaluation of the functions.

## Bug Tracking Example

Bug#: Priority: Subject: Status: Days to fix
Bug:1231 Low File Open ... Open 3
Bug:1232 High Memory Window ... Fixed 2
Bug:1233 Medium Usability issue ... Assigned 5
Bug:1234 High No arrange ... Fixed 1
Total: 4 High: 2
Low: 1
Medium: 1
. Assigned: 1
Fixed: 2
Open: 1
Total: 11

The last row is defined as:

```| Total: %CALC{\$ROW(-2)}% \
| %CALC{\$COUNTITEMS( R2:C\$COLUMN()..R\$ROW(-1):C\$COLUMN() )}% | . \
| %CALC{\$COUNTITEMS( R2:C\$COLUMN()..R\$ROW(-1):C\$COLUMN() )}% \
|  Total: %CALC{\$SUM( R2:C\$COLUMN()..R\$ROW(-1):C\$COLUMN() )}% |
```

Above table is created manually. The table can be build dynamically with a formatted search, or by a plugin that pulls data from an external source, such as a bug tracking system.

## Plugin Settings

Plugin settings are stored as preferences variables. To reference a plugin setting write `%<plugin>_<setting>%`, i.e. `%SPREADSHEETPLUGIN_SHORTDESCRIPTION%`

• One line description, is shown in the TextFormattingRules topic:
• Set SHORTDESCRIPTION = Add spreadsheet calculation like `"\$SUM( \$ABOVE() )"` to TWiki tables or anywhere in topic text

• Debug plugin: (See output in `data/debug.txt`)
• Set DEBUG = 0

• Do not handle `%CALC{}%` variable in included topic while including topic: (default: 1) (See note CALC in Included Topics)
• Set SKIPINCLUDE = 1

• WikiWords to exclude from being spaced out by the `\$PROPERSPACE(text)` function. This comma delimited list can be overloaded by a DONTSPACE preferences variable:
• Set DONTSPACE = CodeWarrior, MacDonald, McIntosh, RedHat, SuSE

## Plugin Installation Instructions

This plugin is pre-installed. TWiki administrators can upgrade the plugin as needed on the TWiki server.

• For an automated installation, run the configure script and follow "Find More Extensions" in the in the Extensions section.

• Or, follow these manual installation steps:
• Unzip `SpreadSheetPlugin.zip` in your twiki installation directory. Content:
File: Description:
`data/TWiki/SpreadSheetPlugin.txt` Plugin topic
`data/TWiki/SpreadSheetPluginTestCases.txt` Test cases
`data/TWiki/VarCALC.txt` Documentation of the CALC variable
`data/TWiki/VarCALCULATE.txt` Documentation of the CALCULATE variable
`lib/TWiki/Plugins/SpreadSheetPlugin.pm` Plugin Perl module
`lib/TWiki/Plugins/SpreadSheetPlugin/Calc.pm` Plugin core module
• Set the ownership of the extracted directories and files to the webserver user.

• Plugin configuration and testing:

## Plugin Info

 2013-01-09: TWikibug:Item7091: Use TWISTY in variable section, installation instructions and change history 2012-11-11: TWikibug:Item7020: Categorize TWiki Variables CALC and CALCULATE 2012-11-05: TWikibug:Item7023: Added \$STDEV(), \$STDEVP(), \$VAR(), \$VARP() 2012-11-03: TWikibug:Item7018: Added SpreadSheetPluginTestCases topic; refactor plugin to use function hash for better performance 2012-10-06: TWikibug:Item6960: Fixed form action of interactive formula evaluation feature -- TWiki:Main.HideyoImazu 2012-06-30: TWikibug:Item6898: Added \$FILTER() 2012-06-29: TWikibug:Item6897: Added \$ISDIGIT(), \$ISLOWER(), \$ISUPPER(), \$ISWIKIWORD() 2012-04-04: TWikibug:Item6866: Added CALCULATE variable using register tag handler to support proper inside-out, left-to-right eval order like ordinary TWiki variables 2012-01-13: TWikibug:Item6804: Added \$FLOOR() and \$CEILING() 2011-09-07: TWikibug:Item6803: Fix for EVAL function bug with zeroes after decimal point 2011-07-09: TWikibug:Item6725: Change global package variables from "use vars" to "our" 2011-04-25: TWikibug:Item6690: Added \$BITXOR(), \$HEXDECODE(), \$HEXENCODE(), \$XOR() 2011-04-08: TWikibug:Item6681: Added \$WHILE() 2011-04-06: TWikibug:Item6679: Fixed small issue with \$LISTRAND(), where last item only got 50% of fair share to get picked 2011-03-25: TWikibug:Item6669: Added \$LISTNONEMPTY() 2011-03-24: TWikibug:Item6668: Fixed \$LIST() not flattening a list in a cell TWikibug:Item6667: Fixed \$RIGHT() having wrong result due to incorrect start cell 2011-03-22: TWikibug:Item6666: Added \$SPLIT(); renamed \$nop separator token of \$LISTJOIN() to \$empty (keeping \$nop as undocumented feature) 2010-08-27: TWikibug:Item6526: Added ISO 8601 week number to \$FORMATTIME(), contributed by TWiki:Main.PeterPayne 2010-08-04: TWikibug:Item6537: Fixed for \$EVAL(2+08) returning "illegal octal digit" error instead of 10 2010-07-17: TWikibug:Item6525: Added \$n token to TRANSLATE for newline 2010-05-27: TWikibug:Item6506: Document delayed evaluation of CALC in included topics 2010-05-26: TWikibug:Item6504: Added empty (\$nop) separator to \$LISTJOIN() 2010-06-25: TWikibug:Item6493: Fixed \$PRODUCT(0,4) returning 4 instead of 0 TWikibug:Item5163: Fix for plugin causing table to misrender an empty "||" row 2010-05-22: TWikibug:Item6472: Added support for DOY in \$TIME(), contributed by TWiki:Main/EmanueleCupido 2010-05-15: TWikibug:Item6433: Doc improvements; replacing TWIKIWEB with SYSTEMWEB 2010-02-27: Doc improvements 2009-11-22: Enhanced \$NOP(): Added \$quot replacement for quote character, changed \$per replacement with \$percnt, contributed by TWiki:Main/HorstEsser 09 May 2009: Fixed bug in \$WORKINGDAYS(): Incorrect number of days if daylight savings time change happens between start date and end date 26 Mar 2009: Added \$INSERTSTRING() 25 Mar 2009: Added \$EMPTY(), \$LEFTSTRING(), \$RIGHTSTRING(), \$SUBSTRING() 24 Mar 2009: Fixed bug in \$REPLACE() if to-be-replaced string is "0"; fixed bug in \$SUBSTITUTE() if replace string is empty; improved docs 13 Oct 2007: Added \$FORMATTIMEDIFF() 09 Sep 2007: Enhanced documentation for \$EVAL() and \$INT() 02 Jun 2007: Added VarCALC to have `%CALC{}%` listed in TWikiVariables 14 Apr 2007: Fixing bug in \$EXISTS() that required full `web.topic` instead of just `topic` 11 Mar 2007: Fixing bug in \$VALUE() and \$INT(), introduced by version 09 Mar 2007 09 Mar 2007: Added \$EXP(), \$LN(), \$LOG(), \$PI(), \$SQRT(); fixed \$ROUND() bug, contributed by TWiki:Main/SergejZnamenskij 23 Jan 2007: Enhanced documentation 18 Dec 2006: Added \$LISTRAND(), \$LISTSHUFFLE(), \$LISTTRUNCATE(); fixed spurious newline at end of topic, contributed by TWiki:Main/MichaelDaum 10 Oct 2006: Enhanced documentation 13 May 2006: Added \$SETIFEMPTY(); fixes in documentation 17 Jun 2005: Added \$NOEXEC(), \$EXEC() 25 Mar 2005: Fixed evaluation bug when using SpeedyCGI accelerator; code refactor to load module only when needed, contributed by TWiki:Main/CrawfordCurrie 24 Oct 2004: Added \$EXISTS(), contributed by TWiki:Main/RodrigoChandia; added \$PERCENTILE() 18 Oct 2004: Added \$LISTJOIN() 26 Sep 2004: Added \$FORMAT(KB), \$FORMAT(MB), contributed by TWiki:Main/ArthurClemens; added \$FORMAT(KBMB), \$EVEN(), \$ODD() 17 Jul 2004: Added \$WORKINGDAYS(), contributed by TWiki:Main/CrawfordCurrie 24 May 2004: Refactored documentation (no code changes) 03 Apr 2004: Added \$ABS(), \$LISTIF(); fixed \$VALUE() to remove leading zeros; changed \$FIND() and \$SEARCH() to return 0 instead of empty string if no match 21 Mar 2004: Added \$LISTITEM(); fixed call to unofficial function 16 Mar 2004: Added \$LISTMAP(), \$LISTREVERSE(), \$LISTSIZE(), \$LISTSORT(), \$LISTUNIQUE(), \$SETM(); retired \$COUNTUNIQUE() in favor of \$COUNTITEMS(\$LISTUNIQUE()); fixed evaluation order issue of \$IF(); fixed missing eval error messages suppressed since version 06 Mar 2004; redirect stderr messages to warning 08 Mar 2004: Added \$LIST() 06 Mar 2004: Added \$AND(), \$MOD(), \$NOT(), \$OR(), \$PRODUCT(), \$PROPER(), \$PROPERSPACE(), \$RAND(), \$REPEAT(), \$SIGN(), \$VALUE(); added digits parameter to \$ROUND(); renamed \$MULT() to \$PRODUCT(); \$MULT() is deprecated and undocumented 27 Feb 2004: Added \$COUNTUNIQUE() 24 Oct 2003: Added \$SET(), \$GET(), \$MEDIAN(); added \$SUMPRODUCT(), inspired by TWiki:Main/RobertWithrow; added \$SUMDAYS(), contributed by TWiki:Main/SvenDowideit 21 Oct 2003: Added support for lists `(1, 2, 3)` and lists of table ranges `(R1:C1..R1:C5, R3:C1..R3:C5)` for all functions that accept a table range; added \$TIMEADD(); in \$TIMEDIFF() added week unit; in \$FORMATTIME() changed \$weekday to \$wd and added \$wday and \$weekday 14 Oct 2003: Added \$TIME(), \$TODAY(), \$FORMATTIME(), \$FORMATGMTIME(), \$TIMEDIFF() 13 Oct 2003: Added \$MULT(), contributed by TWiki:Main/GerritJanBaarda 30 Jul 2003: Added \$TRANSLATE() 19 Jul 2003: Added \$FIND(), \$NOP(), \$REPLACE(), \$SEARCH(), \$SUBSTITUTE(), contributed by TWiki:Main/PaulineCheung 19 Apr 2003: Added \$COUNTSTR(), \$EXACT(), \$IF(), \$ROUND(), \$TRIM(); added \$FORMAT(), contributed by TWiki:Main/JimStraus; support `%` modulus operator in \$EVAL(), \$INT(), and \$ROUND(); fixed bug in \$DEF() 07 Jun 2002: Added \$DEF(), contributed by TWiki:Main/MartinFuzzey; allow values with HTML formatting like `102`, suggested by TWiki:Main/GladeDiviney; added SKIPINCLUDE setting 12 Mar 2002: Support for multiple functions per nesting level 15 Jan 2002: Added \$CHAR(), \$CODE() and \$LENGTH() 12 Nov 2001: Added \$RIGHT() 12 Aug 2001: Fixed bug of disappearing multi-column cells 19 Jul 2001: Fixed incorrect \$SUM() calculation of cell with value `0` 14 Jul 2001: Changed to plug & play 01 Jun 2001: Fixed insecure dependencies for \$MIN() and \$MAX() 16 Apr 2001: Fixed div by 0 bug in \$AVERAGE() 17 Mar 2001: Initial version with \$ABOVE(), \$AVERAGE(), \$COLUMN(), \$COUNTITEMS(), \$EVAL(), \$INT(), \$LEFT(), \$LOWER(), \$MAX(), \$MIN(), \$ROW(), \$SUM(), \$T(), \$UPPER()